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Birjand stands in the southeast of the province, and is 1309 km. from Tehran. Being surrounded by the desert (Kavir) the weather in the southern regions is warm and in mountains it is temperate. In the past, Birjand was a small part of a region named Qahestan (mountain side) and bore an important role after Islam prevailed.
This region offered refuge to some movements such as the Esmailaian, and on the other hand proved to shelter the Arabs who were escaping from the hands of the Abbasi Caliphate. In Birjand evidence of Zoroastrian vestiges have been discovered. From the 11th century AH on wards, during the Safavid era when the Shiite religion was formally recognized, the city developed economically and was an important center for trade and commerce. In present times Birjand enjoys its role as one of the focal cities in the south of the province of Khorassan.

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