Bistoon Archaeological Region, Harsin

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Bistoon Archaeological Region, Harsin
The Behestan Mountains with a height of about 2,794 m. above sea level is located to the right of the of Kermanshah – Hamadan Road. This mountain in different periods was called by the names of Boqestan, Begestan and Bistoon, and today is known as Bistoon.
Bistoon is alongside the ancient Silk Road and is located at the crossing point of Iran’s western roads. In this area of the Zagross slopes, there are abundant gushing springs, which have caused the area to flourishing and there is a resting point for the travelers and a location for caravans to stop. The Bistoon region due to its special importance in different ancient historical periods has evidences from various eras, right up to the Safavid period.
Borj Hill, Kangavar
Near the Jooda hill towards the Borj Valley there is a rather tall hill with the remnants of an old castle. The surface of the hill was covered with pieces of plain and glazed earthenware which mostly belonged to the Sassanid and Parthian periods. Among the earthenware pieces green and blue colors are found in abundance. Presently, this is vicinity completely leveled by the inhabitants.
Chamchal Ancient City, Bistoon, Harsin
In the down skirts of the Bistoon Mountains by the command of Muhammad Khodabandeh the Oljayto (703-716 A.H.) a town was built known as ‘Soltan Abad Chamchal’ or ‘little Baqdad’. This town was constructed by the Eilkhani sultans in order to be used as the center of Kurdistan instead of ‘Bahar’. In Bistoon excavations in Gamasiyab River banks, on a wall from Sassanid period, relics of the Ilkhanan period have been discovered. These are probably the remainders of the city reputedly known as Chamchal.
The Mongol relics in Bistoon, includes a large structure which pertains a high value of importance from the architectural point of view, related to the Eilkhanian period.
This building has 13 rooms, 3 porches and a few corridors. The main construction materials of the building are gypsum, mortar and limestone. In some parts of the building sculptured stones of the Sassanid period have been used. This Eilkhani structure was utilized till the late Teimoorid period, but in later periods it became deserted and ruined.

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