History of Sufism
The history of Sufism can be divided into the following principal periods:
Sufism originates in the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad. Almost all traditional Sufi schools (orders) trace their “chains of transmission” back to the Prophet, either via his cousin and son-in-law Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib or caliph Abu Bakr. From their point of view, the esoteric teaching was given to those who had the capacity to contain the direct experiential gnosis of God, and then passed on from teacher to student through the centuries.
Some scholars believe that Sufism was essentially the result of Islam evolving in a more mystic direction. For example, Annemarie Schimmel proposes that Sufism in its early stages of development meant nothing but the interiorization of Islam. And Louis Massignon states: “It is from the Quran, constantly recited, meditated, and experienced, that Sufism proceeded, in its origin and its development.”
The Great masters of Sufism
The Sufis dispersed throughout the Middle East, particularly in the areas previously under Byzantine influence and control. This period was characterised by the practice of anapprentice (murid) placing himself under the spiritual direction of a Master (shaykh or pir).
The Bastami Complex in Bastam,Semnan Province of Iran, contains the shrine of Mohammad ibn Jafar Sadiq, the tomb of Bayazid, his monastery, the Iwan of ljeit, the tomb of Mahmud Ghazan, the Congregation Mosque, the tower of Kashaneh, and the Shahrukhiya seminary, bath, andZurkhaneh, dating from before theSeljuki era, at the earliest.
Schools were developed, concerning themselves with the topics of mystical experience, education of the heart to rid itself of baser instincts, the love of God, and approaching God through progressive stages (maqaam) and states (haal). The schools were formed by reformers who felt their core values and manners had disappeared in a society marked by material prosperity that they saw as eroding the spiritual life.
Uwais al-Qarni, Harrm Bin Hian, Hasan Ul-Basri and Sayid Ibn Ul Mussib are regarded as the first mystics among the “Taabi’een” in Islam. Rabia was a female Sufi and known for her love and passion for God. Junayd was among the first theorist of Sufism; he concerned himself with fanaa and baqaa, the state of annihilating the self in the presence of the divine, accompanied by clarity concerning wordly phenomena.
Formalization of Philosophies of Sufism
Al Ghazali‘s treatises, the “Reconstruction of Religious Sciences” and the “Alchemy of Happiness,” argued that Sufism originated from the Qur’an making it compatible with mainstream Islamic thought and theology. It was around 1000 CE that the early Sufi literature, in the form of manuals, treatises, discourses and poetry, became the source of Sufi thinking and meditations.
Propagation of Sufism
Sufism, during 1200-1500 CE, experienced an era of increased activity in various parts of the Islamic world. This period is considered as the “Classical Period” or the “Golden Age” of Sufism. Lodges and hospices soon became not only places to house Sufi students, but also places for practising Sufis and other mystics to stay and retreat.
The propagation of Sufism started from its origin in Baghdad, Iraq, and spread to Persia, India, North Africa and Muslim Spain. There were tests of conciliation between Sufism and the other Islamic sciences (sharia, fiqh, etc.), as well as the beginning of the Sufi brotherhoods (turuq).
One of the first orders to originate was the Yasawi order, named after Khwajah Ahmed Yesevi in modern Kazakhstan. The Kubrawiya order, originating in Central Asia, was named after Najmeddin Kubra, known as the “saint-producing shaykh” , since a number of his disciples became shaykhs. The most prominent Sufi master of this era is Abdul Qadir Jilani, the founder of the Qadiriyyah order in Iraq. Others included Rumi, founder of the Mevlevi order in Turkey, Sahabuddin Suharwardi in Asia minor, and Moinuddin Chishti in India.
This period includes the effects of modern thoughts, science, and philosophy on Sufism and the advent of Sufism to the West. Important Sufis of this period include Hazrat Salaheddin Ali Nader Shah Angha, Hazrat Shah Maghsoud Sadegh Angha, Hazrat Mir Ghotbeddin Mohammad Angha and Hazrat Jalaleddin Ali Mir Abolfazl Angha from theOveyssi-Shahmaghsoudi order.
A number of scholars perceive influences on Sufism from pre-Islamic and non-Islamic schools of mysticism and philosophy. Some of these new perspectives originate from the synthesis of Persian civilization with Islam, an emphasis on spiritual aspects of Islam, and the incorporation of ideas and practices from other mysticisms such as Gnosticism andHinduism into Islam . The evidence in support of non-Islamic influences in formation of Sufism includes the existence of similarities between Sufism and mystic systems outside Islam. There are also claims regarding ancient Egyptian roots of Sufism which are not widely accepted.. Others oppose the idea of extensive non-Islamic influences on Sufism and believe that these theories are based on misunderstanding Islam as a harsh and sterile religion, incapable of developing mysticism.
Dervishesthe name given to initiates of Sufi ordersbelieve that love is a projection of the essence of God to the universe. They believe God desires to recognize beauty by looking at himself within the dynamics of nature. Divine love is not restricted to what the term “love of God” implies, it also includes human loves with a perspective that views everything a manifestation of God.
The central doctrine of Sufism, sometimes called Wahdat or Unity, is the understanding of Tawhid: all phenomena are manifestations of a single reality, or Wujud (being), or ‘al-Haq (Truth, God). The essence of being/Truth/God is devoid of every form and quality, and hence unmanifested, yet it is inseparable from every form and phenomenon either material or spiritual. It is often understood to imply that every phenomenon is an aspect of Truth and at the same time attribution of existence to it is false. The chief aim of all Sufis then is to let go of all notions of duality, therefore the individual self also), and realize the divine unity.
Sufis teach in personal groups, believing the interaction of the master is necessary for the growth of the pupil. They make extensive use of parable, allegory, and metaphor, and it is held by Sufis that meaning can only be reached through a process of seeking the truth, and knowledge of oneself. Although philosophies vary between different Sufi orders, Sufism as a whole is primarily concerned with direct personal experience, and as such may be compared to various forms of mysticism such as Zen Buddhism and Gnosticism.
The following metaphor, credited to an unknown Sufi scholar, helps describe this line of thought.
- There are three ways of knowing a thing. Take for instance a flame. One can be told of the flame, one can see the flame with his own eyes, and finally one can reach out and be burned by it. In this way, we Sufis seek to be burned by God.
A significant part of Persian literature comes from the Sufis, who created great books of poetry (which include for example the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, the Conference of the Birds and the Masnavi), all of which contain teachings of the Sufis.
Lataif-e-sitta (The Six Subtleties)
Drawing from Qur’anic verses, virtually all Sufis distinguish Lataif-e-Sitta (The Six Subtleties), Nafs, Qalb, Ruh, Sirr, Khafi & Akhfa. These lataif (singular : latifa) designate various psychospiritual “organs” or, faculties of sensory perception.
Sufic development involves the awakening of these spiritual centers of perception that lie dormant in an individual. Each center is associated with a particular colour and general area of the body, oft times with a particular prophet, and varies from Order to Order. The help of a guide is considered necessary to help activate these centers. After undergoing this process, the dervish is said to reach a certain type of “completion.”
These six “organs” or faculties: Nafs, Qalb, Ruh, Sirr, Khafi & Akhfa, and the purificative activities applied to them, contain the basic orthodox Sufi philosophy. The purification of the elementary passionate nature (Tazkiya-I-Nafs), followed by cleansing of the spiritual heart so that it may acquire a mirror-like purity of reflection (Tazkiya-I-Qalb) and become the receptacle of God’s love (Ishq), illumination of the spirit (Tajjali-I-Ruh) fortified by emptying of egoic drives (Taqliyya-I-Sirr) and remembrance of God’s attributes (Dhikr), and completion of journey with purification of the last two faculties, Khafi & Akhfa. Through these “organs” or faculties and the transformative results from their activation, the basic Sufi psychology is outlined and bears some resemblance to the schemata of kabbalah, but the resemblance to the tantric chakra system is misleading, since the Sufi psychology does not operate with anything equivalent to the esoteric energy physiology of Kundalini.
Man gets acquainted with the lataif one by one by Muraqaba (Sufi Meditation), Dhikr (Remembrance of God) and purification of one’s psyche from negative thoughts, emotions, and actions. Loving God and one’s fellow, irrespective of his race, religion or nationality, and without consideration for any possible reward, is the key to ascension according to Sufis.
Although there is no consensus with regard to Sufi cosmology, one can disentangle various threads that led to the crystallization of more or less coherent cosmological doctrines. Reading various authoritative texts, one can see that practitioners of Sufism were not much bothered with inconsistencies and contradictions that have arisen due to juxtaposition and superposition of at least three different cosmographies: Ishraqi visionary universe as expounded by Suhrawardi Maqtul, Neoplatonic view of cosmos cherished by Islamic philosophers like Ibn Sina/Avicenna and Sufis like Ibn al-Arabi, and Hermetic-Ptolemaic spherical geocentric world. All these doctrines (each one of them claiming to be impeccably orthodox) were freely mixed and juxtaposed, frequently with confusing results a situation one encounters in other esoteric doctrines, from Hebrew Kabbalah andGnosticism to Vajrayana Buddhism and Trika Shaivism. The following cosmological plan is usually found in various Sufi texts:
See also: Plane (cosmology) Esoteric cosmology.
Muraqaba is the word used by many Sufis when referring to the practice of meditation. The Arabic word literally means observe, guard or control one’s thoughts and desires. In some Sufi orders, muraqaba may involve concentrating one’s mind on the names of God, on a verse of the Qur’an, or on certain Arabic letters that have special significance. Muraqaba in other orders may involve the Sufi aspirant focusing on his or her murshid, while others (such as the Azeemia order) imagine certain colors to achieve different spiritual states.
Dhikr (Zekr) is the remembrance of God commanded in the Qur’an for all Muslims. To engage in dhikr is to have awareness of God according to Islam. Dhikr as a devotional act includes the repetition of divine names, supplications and aphorisms from hadith literature, and sections of the Qur’an. More generally, any activity in which the Muslim maintains awareness of God is considered dhikr.
The Sufi orders engage in ritualized dhikr ceremonies. Each order or lineage within an order has one or more forms for group dhikr, the liturgy of which may include recitation,singing, instrumental music, dance, costumes, incense, meditation, ecstasy, and trance. (Touma 1996, p.162). Dhikr in a group is most often done on ThursDay and/or SunDay nights as part of the institutional practice of the orders.
Hadhra is a dance associated with dhikr practiced primarily in the Arab world.
Qawwali is a form of devotional Sufi music common in Pakistan and North India. As a tradition, Qawwali is known for its secular strains. Some of its modern-Day masters have included Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan and the Sabri Brothers.
Sama or Sema’ (Arabic “listening”) refers to Sufi worship practices involving music and dance (see Sufi whirling). In Uyghur culture, this includes a dance form also originally associated with Sufi ritual. See Qawwali origins and Origin and History of the Qawwali, Adam Nayyar, Lok Virsa Research Centre, Islamabad, 1988.
Khalwa refers to a form of retreat, once widespread but now less common.
Orders of Sufism
The traditional Sufi orders emphasize the role of Sufism within Islam. Therefore the Sharia (traditional Islamic law) and the Sunnah (customs of the Prophet) are seen as crucial for any Sufi aspirant. Among the oldest and most well known of the Sufi orders are the Oveyssi, Shadhili, Jerrahi, Qadiri, Naqshbandi, Nimatullahi, Mevlevi, Chishti and theAshrafi. One proof traditional orders assert is that almost all the famous Sufi masters of the Islamic Caliphate times were also experts in Sharia and were renowned as people with great Iman (faith) and excellent practice. Many were also Qadis (Sharia law judges) in courts. They held that Sufism was never distinct from Islam and to fully comprehend and live correct with Sufism one must be a practicing Muslim obeying the Sharia.
For a longer list of Sufi orders see: Sufi orders
Non-traditional Sufi groups
In recent decades there has been a growth of non-traditional Sufi movements in the West. Some examples are Universal Sufism movement, the Mevlevi Order of America, the Golden Sufi Center, the Sufi Foundation of America, and Sufism Reoriented.
Mainstream Sufism is seen by its scholars and supporters as a part of traditional Islam. However, there is a major line of non-Islamic or offshoot-Islamic Sufi thought that sees Sufism as predating Islam and being a universal philosophy, that is independent of the Qur’an and the teachings of Prophet Muhammad. This view of Sufism has been popular in the Western world, and the terms yogi and sufi are used interchangeably. Universal Sufism tends to be opposed by traditional Sufis, who argue that Sufism has always been practiced from within an Islamic framework and can never be separated from it. Inayat Khan founded Universal Sufism, and Idries Shah advocated similar concepts.
There is also an attempt to reconsider Sufism in contemporary Muslim thought from within. According to this view, Sufism represents the core sense of Islam that gives insight to God and His creation.
Traditional Islamic schools of thought and Sufism
Islam traditionally consists of a number of groups. The two main divisions are the Sunnis and the Shia”>Shia. Sunni Islam consists of a number of schools of legal jurisprudence (called Madhabs). Sufis do not define Sufism as a madhhab what distinguishes a person as a Sufi is practicing Sufism, usually through association with a Sufi order. Belief in Sufism is not sufficient for being recognized as a Sufi. Classic Sufi tariqas insist on adherence to one of the four Madhabs of Fiqh and one of the two orthodox schools of Aqida. In this sense, traditional practicers of Sufism don’t see it as an exclusive group but just as a form of training necessary to cultivate spirituality and Ihsan in their lives.
W. Chittick explains the position of Sufism and Sufis this way:
- In short, Muslim scholars who focused their energies on understanding the normative guidelines for the body came to be known as jurists, and those who held that the most important task was to train the mind in achieving correct understanding came to be divided into three main schools of thought: theology, philosophy, and Sufism. This leaves us with the third domain of human existence, the spirit. Most Muslims who devoted their major efforts to developing the spiritual dimensions of the human person came to be known as Sufis
The relationship between traditional Islamic scholars and Sufism is complicated due to the variety of Sufi orders and their history.
According to the followers of Sufism, the founders and early scholars of the schools (madhhabs) had positive attitudes towards Sufism, for example Imam Ibn Hambal used to visit the Sufi master Bishr al Hafi frequently. Later, there were some scholars who considered some aspects of Sufism rank heresy as well as those like Al-Ghazali who defended Sufis as true Muslims. In time, even the controversial words of Al-Hallaj came to be accepted by some scholars.
ToDay, many Islamic scholars (though not all) hold Tasawwuf, in the sense of Sufi doctrines and philosophies, to be the science of the heart or gnosis (as distinct from other branches of Islamic knowledge which are exoteric in nature) and appreciate Sufis for their extensive contributions to Islamic arts and philosophy. Many Muslims who are not themselves Sufis are influenced by Sufi teachings.
Controversy and criticism of Sufism
Sufism is a somewhat controversial subject toDay. For didactic convenience, the perspectives on Sufism as a part of Islam will be mentioned first and after that, the non Muslim groups who claim to be Sufi adherents.
Islamic positions on Sufism
Classic position on Sufism
Sufism was traditionally considered the systematisation of the spiritual component of Islam. It dealt with matters of the heart (just as Fiqh dealt with the body and Aqida dealt with the intellect). Many of the greatest Islamic scholars wrote treatises on the subject (eg. Al-Ghazali‘s ihya ulum-aldeen (احياء علوم الدين), Imam Nawawi‘s Bustan al-Arifeen etc.). Many of the traditional scholars who were part of famous Islamic institutions (eg. Al-Azhar) like Ibn Ata’illah were Sufi masters. Even toDay, many of the traditional Islamic universities like Al-Azhar endorse Sufism as a part of the religion of Islam. Many of the famous Islamic scholars have praised Sufis and their practices. For a list, please refer scholars on sufism.
However, Sufism emphasises non quantifiable matters (like states of the heart). The authors of various Sufi treatises often used allegorical language which couldn’t be read by an unknowledgeable person to describe these states (eg. likened some states to intoxication which is forbidden in Islam). This usage of indirect language and the existence of interpretations by people who had no training in Islam or Sufism led to doubts being cast over the validity of Sufism as a part of Islam. Also, some groups emerged that considered themselves above the Sharia and discussed Sufism as a method of bypassing the rules of Islam in order to attain salvation directly. This was disapproved of by traditional scholars. An example of such a deviant sufi was Abu Hilman. One of the most vocal critics of such deviations from the Islamic creed was Ibn Taymiya.
For a detailed essay on the role that Sufism plays in traditional Islam, please refer Place of Tasawwuf in traditional Islam.
Criticism of Sufism
Sufism has been criticised as being non Islamic in nature. The adherents of the Salafi school form the majority of Muslims opposed to Tasawwuf. They hold that Sufism was always held to be an innovation even by the earliest scholars (,). Some of their main criticisms are listed below.
- Sufi masters have introduced many special prayers and devotional acts into their schools. These are criticised as being reprehensible innovations which are at best unnecessary. The supporters of Sufism defend their position by saying that innovations can be classified into good and bad ones. They hold that the textually transmitted prayers and invocations are superior in all respects to the ones they institute and that the latter only plays a reinforcing role rather than a main one (,).
- Some point to certain practices like singing being inconsistent with the Sharia. Sufis defend their position by quoting prophetic traditions that condone certain forms of non instrumental music (refer links above).
- The allegorical and often obstruse language used by Sufis in their texts when interpreted by unqualified people opens avenues for many misunderstandings. eg. The concept of divine unity Wahdat-ul-wujood which critics consider equivalent to pantheism and therefore incompatible with Islam(). Sufi masters in many of their introductory texts caution aspirants from reading and interpreting texts by themselves. They hold that the subject can only be taught by a master to a student under strict guidance and supervision owing to its delicate nature. .
Islamic positions on non Islamic Sufi groups
The use of the title Sufi by many groups to refer to themselves and their use of traditional Sufi masters (notably Jalaluddin Rumi) as sources of inspiration as well as the existence of interpretations of classical Sufis texts by people who have no grounding in traditional Islamic sciences has created a group of non-Islamic Sufis. These are considered by traditional Islamic scholars as beyond the pale of the religion